Tuesday, July 8, 2014

ब्रिटोनतय्गु मांभाय्या संघर्ष

/fh]g dfgGw/
lh+ plds] Gogfu' y'ln x] hs vM — æl5ldu' df+ l5ldt 5fo\ oM< u'ln oM<Æ
cg jMlk+ clwsf+z ;xeflut la6«f]gt vM pldu' df+efo\ la6«f]gL vM . pld;+ yMu' g'uno\ bfl;jofRj+u' vF 5;Lsy+ sg . Yj  lhu' k|mG;o\ nl5 Rjgfu' zfob bsno\ g'uno\ lypu' lb+ h'O . lh+ lhu' P:k]/fGtf] Snfo;o\ RjgLlk+ sl/a !*Dx k|m]Grto\s] pldu' df+efo\k|ltof dltgf eo\laofRj+u' vgf . k|mfG;o\ yMu' efo\ Gxgfj+u' :jofRjg]dfMlk+ k|m]Grt plk+ . k|;+u lh @)!@of cu:6o\ k|mfG;of Kn"h]so\ h"u' P:k]/fGtf] efo\of cGt/fli6«o Hof‰jno\ AjltsfMjgfano\ofu' .
a|]6gL efo\ wOu' k|mfG;of pQ/klZrdof a|]6fGof k|b]zo\ NxfOu' 5u" efo\ vM . Yj hft sy+ la|yf]lgs efo\ cGt/ut nfM, u'u' yg u|]6 la|6]g+ cdf]{lgsf h'ofM yg Gxfkf+u' dWoo'uof k|f/Dekfv] afo\lxnfjMlk+ a|]6f]gto\;+ HjgfjMu' h'ofRjg . j]Nz j sf]lg{z y]+ d]d]u' a|]yf]lgs efo\t y]+ Yj g+ OG;'n/ s]lN6s efo\of ?ko\ AofVof ofgftMu' b' .
k'nf+u' a|]6f]g efo\ (cf}+ ztfAbLO x] vg] bo]w'+sn . !@cf}+ ztfAbLO ts Yj pRr ju{of efo\ h'ofRjg . cg+ lnkf klZrd a|]6f]go\ Yj ;a{;fwf/0fof efo\ h'ofjg . /fhsfho\ NxfM to]u' dxTjfsf+Iff b'lk+ pRrju{oflkG;+ la:tf/+ k|m]Grefo\oft gfnfo+sn . a|]6gLof dxf/fgL -8r];++_ Gxfkf ts lnlvt efo\of ?ko\ Nofl6g 5\onfRj+u' vM;f !%cf}+ ztfAbL lg;]+ k|m]Gr 5\onfxn . /fhgLltof :jxfg] uofM ;DkGgtf j k|lti7f dfnLlkG;+ k|m]Grof :jxfg] uOu' h'ofM k|m]Gr efo\ em+ em+ Aofks h'of jg .
k|mfG;of /fhtGq+ cgof lrrLw+u' ;d'bfoof efo\oft doo]s" a? a'n'x'F ;/sf/L HofvFo\ k|m]Gr dbo]sdufMu' ofgfo+sn . d]v] qmflGtof Ono\ dg"to\;+ k|fGtLo efo\of kn];f k|m]Gr efo\oft oo]sf o+sn, pld larfM sy+ cano\of k|ltlqmofafbLt j /fhfafbLto\;+ k|fGtLo efo\ oo]sfRj+u' b' . cano\of qmflGtsf/Lto\;+ nf ;fdGtt j ?l9afbLto\;+ a|]6f]gL efo\ NxfO wsfM wfOu' .
lnkf h'h'+ dg"t oo]s+ doo]s+ Yj yMu' df+ efo\ kfv]+ tfkfgf jg . y'lsof x] lnRjM sy+ ;g\ !(^) ts g+ cgof /fHoof Ajg]s'lyO a|]6f]gL efo\ NxfOlkGt nlHht ofo]u' Hof h"u' vM .
;g\ !(%) hMvM ts x] g+ lemu" nfv efiffefifLt b' woftMu' Yj efo\ NxfOlk @!cf}+ ztfAbLof Gxfkf+u' bzso\ ys Yo+ano\ lgu" nfv hs Nog . pls;+ plk+ dWo] ^) k|ltzt :jofM dNofs dg"t ^) bF :jofM Rjo\oflk+ hs b' . @)cf}+ ztfAbLof z'?O ts g+ a|]6fGofof blIf0fL e]uo\ cgof hg;+Vofof al5 dg"to\;+ a|]6f]gL efo\ hs ;M . cg+ lg;]+ cg a|]6f]gL efo\of cjt/0f z'? h'n . cfM ;+ejtM cg Yj efo\ hs NxfOlk+ dg"t ;'+x] dbo]w'+sn . ;g\ !((&o\ ofMu' 5u" ;j]{If0f sy+ cg Yj efo\ NxfOlk+ #)),))) dg"t b' w}u' tYof+s lksft . cfM !%÷!( bFof o'jfk':tf b'g] Yj efo\ NxfOlk+ t;s+ Dxf] hs lkxfF jMu'ln+ y'lsoft tgfjg]To+u' efo\ wsfMwoftMu' b' .
Yj efo\ dbo]sf5\jo]u'nL ygof :s"nto]u' g+ oSj e"ldsf b' . la;f}+ ztfAbLof z'?jft lg;]+ Yj efo\oft wSsf nfMjn . !(!$ lg;]+ :s"n+ cg d:to\t yMu' df+ef;+ vF ts x] Nxfs] dlan . pldt ;hfo laOt wsfM cg pldu' k/Dk/fut l;Fof nfsf+ xoftMu' bO . df+ef;+ vF NxfMu' tfnls cgof lzIfs lzlIfsflkG;+ pldt j nfsf+of dfM bo]sf SjvfsftO, d]lk+ d:to\;+ joft j]F xfo]s]y]+ xfo]sfRjgL . cn] j drf+ d]Dx:of+ la|6f]g efo\ uano\ NxfO wsfM lkofRjgL . ha j+ d]Dx:of+ df+ef;+ vFNxfMu' tfO, j+ yDx+ Sjvfoftofu' nfsf+dfM jof uano\ toflaO, yMu' kfM AogL . xfg+ j drf+ Yj x] Hofoft lg/Gt/tf laO . wofRjg]DjfM Yj 5u" sy+of dfgf]j}1flgs VofRjM vM cn] lhGbuLe/ Yj efo\ Nxfo]dv' wsfM d:to\t kfMkmo]s]u' 5u" cr"s h'lQm g+ vM. /fHo+ emL yfo\ y]+ tKo+s Yj ef;+ RjLlkGt lrQw/ bo]s"u' nf vg]db' t/ yHofMu' cj:yfo\ d:to\;+ Yj efo\ Nxfo]u' TjMtf jgLu' :jefljs h'n . cn] y'lsof ln;]+ 5]Fo\ df+af}lkG;+ g+ yM d:to\t yMu' efo\ dNxfs]u' kfv] aMlan . 5v] :s"no\ d:to\t dfgl;s s;f, d]v] lwAGofuM Woaf HofVono\ db'u' efo\ d:to\t af]em h'n wsfM tfo]sLlk+ df+af}lk+ g+ cKjM bof jn .
h]g+ wfn, jof dfd+ nf $) bF ts d'4f lDxtn, d:to\t sd;]sd :s"no\ df+ef;+ vF Nxfs]lap wsfM t/ ;'g'jfO dh" .
d]v] ljz]ifofgfM ;/sf/L k|zf;g j d]d]u' nuhf ofOlkG;+ jf ofo]u' nIo HjgfRj+lkG;+ yMu' efo\oft k+uM tfo]sfM uf}/jsf;fy Tjtf o+sn . kbof nf]eo\ dg"to\;+ yMu' c:tLj ldof5\jt . Yj vF g]jfMto\u' ;Gbe{o\ x] wfM;f+ oSj kfOdv' .
cfM Yj efo\ NxfOlk+ dg"t Dxf] h'ofjgfRj+u'ln+ o'g]:sf]+ g+ y'lsoft ;+;f/of vtf/fo\ nfMu' efo\to\u' dfglrqo\ (Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger) tolan . cn] ltlg cgoflk+ dg"to\;+ jfMrofo]sn efiff DjfM;f hflt DjfO w}u' .
yg g+ eflifs r]tgfof hM n"u' oSj db'lg . ;g\ !(@% o\ k|f]km]z/ /f]kfh Pdf]gof s'tn+ Ujfnd w}u' klqsf lkxfFjn . lgu" bzstsof cys ldx]gtoft j+ . yL yL ljwfo\ Yj ef;+ df}lns ;flxToof l;h{gf h'n, cn] ljZj ljVoft cGt/f{li6«o ;flxlTos s[ltt Yj ef;+ cg'jfb g+ ofs]u' Hof h'n .
;g\ !(&& ts Yo+ano\ cgof cw{;/sf/L l8jg :s"no\ a|]6f]gL ef;+ :og]u' Hof z'?h'n . Yj cleofg cGtu{t xhf/f}+ d:to\;+ Yj efo\ ;o]s]vgfRj+u' b', :s'nof kf7\oqmd b'g]RjgfM .
pln hs dv', yLyL sldS;t Yj ef;+ lkb+u' b', /]l8cf] s]g{y]+HofMu' 5u" lgu" /]l8cf]+ a|]6f]gL ef;+ Hofem\jM laofRj+u' b', 5u" lgu" 6]lnl;l/on g+ Yj ef;+ lxnfM Sog]u' ofgfxMu' b' . cfM Yj pldu' nflu lx/fy]+ d"Noafg\ h'ofRj+u' b' . lkg]+ jMlk+ ;'+ gfknftls yHofMu' vF TjMdlkmSs sgL .
Gxfkf Gxfkf pldu' ;lxTo ljsf; h"u' vM;f+ lnkf h"ln;] l;h{gf 5\jf;'ofjg — RjMdb' wsfM dAjg, Aj+db' wsfM dRjn . cfM cg a|]6f]g ;flxToof 5u" l;ldt k/Dk/f GXofgfRj+u' b' . ttMw+u' ;km"k;no\ g+ a|]6f]g efo\of cnUu b/fh ;h]ofgftMu' bO, k;no\ j+lklg lgu" Ko+u" la|6f]g efo\of ;k"m Gofo, cn] j b/fhof lnSs RjgfM kf;foft kmf]6f] sfo]sL . cgRj+lklg yM Ajg];M;f+ d;M;f+ lgkfM KokfM a|]6f]gL efo\of ;km" yMu' 5]Fof b/fho\, nfOa|]/LO ;h]ofgfto]u' oft tMw+u' uj{of ljifoof ?ko\ sfO, sGx]s+;f Yj ;k"m bSj Ajg]dflg wsfM wofRjgL . yM Ajg] x] d;M;f+ kf;flklgu' 5]Fo\ jgLano\ cgof a's/\ofso\ klt+rf jfnfM GogL a|]6f]gL efo\of ;km" dtof nf< cn] db' wfn ls t;s+ dle+Dx, SjXo+Dx j u}/lhDd]jf/ gful/sof ?ko\ k|:t'tofO , bSjl;of GXoMg] .
yf}+sGxo\of a|]6f]gL efo\ Gxfkfof d"n efo\ :jofM oSj kfo]w'+sn . cfM nf k'nf+u' a|]6f]gL efo\of 5'+ 5'+ vFUjM hs blg cfw'lgs a|]6f]gL ef;o\, j g+ bfz{lgs j j}1flgs vFUjMof ?ko\ .
;+3if{ cem+ l;dwMlg . yf}+ g+ cgof /fHo+ yMu' ;+ljwfgof lgu"u' wf/f oft xLs]t tof/ h'ofRj+u' db', u'lsof sy+ j u0ftGqof efo\ k|m]Gr h'O wsfM woftMu' b' . cy] h'Ou'ln+ GXofSj efo\ NxfOlk+ b';f+ Yj efo\oft vt/fo\ nfgfRj+u' efo\ wsfM x] woftMu' b' .
*) b'Dx Uofla|Pn+ t5\ofgfM wfn, ælhldu' efo\ w}u' lhldu' k|f0f vM . Yj dbo]s+ lhlk+ Djfo]kmOdv' .Æ
pldu' df+efo\of xlaut, dltgf j xfg+ efo\ Djfs]u' k|lja4tf vgfM lhu' g'uM knv b|lje"t h'n . lh 5sn+ yMu' b];o\ Yog . yMu' efo\of k'ghf{u/0f sfnof dxf/yLto\u' lskf lhu' ldvfo\ n't, cn] yf}+sGxo\ efiff;]jfof gfdo\ h'ofRj+u' cfGbf]ng j plsof lnpg] ;'nfRj+u' kbof /fhgLltof Kofv+ ln;f ln;f sofM jofRjg .
cfGbf]ng emLyfo\ g+ dh"u' dv' . yf} lDxuM hs h"u' g+ dv' . emLu' efo\of cfGbf]ng z'? h"u' kl08t lgi7fgGbof Pslj+zlt k|1fkf/ldtf -g];+ !)@(_ lg;]+ sfo]u' vM;f emL;+ emLu' df+efo\ Djfs]u' cfGbf]ng ofgfu' !)$ bF bt . y'lsof b'g] u'ln ;k"m lkbg h'O, kqklqsf lkbg h'O, u'ln :of+ Do] xfn h'O, u'ln:of+ Kofv+ x'n h'O . cem u'ln ;+3;+:yft gL:jg h'O, UjDx cWoIf h'n h'O, UjDx ;Nnfxsf/ h'n h'O, UjMsM r'gfj h'n h'O, u'ln r'gfj Sjyn h'O, u'ln uf]i7L j /\ofnL h'n h'O . u'ln rGbf sfn h'O, u'ln e|i6frf/ h'n h'O . xfg+ Yj x] Tjx tofM u'ln Njfk' h'n h'O .
y'ln dl5 h'O w'+sfM cfu|x, k"jf{u|x, å]if j bDeoft 5v] tofM :jo]u' vM;f emLu' NxfltO 5' b' n]< g]jfMefo\ NxfOlk+ em+ em+ Dxf] x] h'of jgfRj+u' b', efo\ Gxgfjg, TjMt]dlhn wsfM efif0f ofOlkG;+ yMd:t ln;] vo\ ef;+ vF NxfgfRj+u' b', g]jfM ef;+ ;flxTo l;h{gf ofOlk+ em+ Dxf] h'of jgfRj+u' b', lksfMu' ;k"m GofMdbofM 5\lnO km\j;fXjxo]sfto]dfMu' b', 5u" k':tf+ efo\ yM d:to\t efo\ d:ogflapano\ jof d:to\;+ ;o]s] Nxfo] wsfM :jM;f+ ultklt db"u' efo\of lgdf{0f h'ofRj+u' b' . Yj x] dv'nf emLu' ;l5bFof pknlAw< d+sfMvnMof Hofs'lyORj+u' l;l4bf;of kf]6«]6+ gjfOdv't, nv'tLy{o\ w+sftMu' hut;'Gb/of ;fnLs+ :o+jOdv't, lrqw/+ Rj wfMjOdv't . b'lk+ k'nf+lklg k'nf+k'nf+u' afv+ ss+ lndnfM, Gx"lklg Gx"Gx"u' km];gofof+ lndnfM . wfy]+ emLu' efo\of wfy]+u' cfGbf]ng uano\ h'Ou'<
plds] lh+ Gogf, æl5ldu' efo\of cfGbf]ng ofOu' ;+3;+:yft u'ln b'< cn] ;' plsof g]tf<Æ
h]g+ wfn, æb' h'O, t/ lhld+ x/]s la|6f]g hgtf 5u" 5u" ;+:yf vM . lhlk+ x] cfGbf]ng .Æ
lhtM n'dg . lh u|]lhNof]go\ b'ano\ 5sM gofRjFRj+ lr b"u' a6/of vF jn . la|tfGofo\ yy] lr b"u' a6/ gO . lh+ gsltlg Nof;]rfDx ld;fofs] Gogf, æ5Gt la|6f]g h'ofof uj{ b'nf<Æ
j+ ukno\ SjvgftMu' jxof lrsLk"u' l;vM lnsofM Sog . plsO oufgfRjg la|tfGoof gS;f . uj{+ 5\o+ w:jfsfM wfn, æb' . lh GXofyfo\ b';f+ lhso\ la|tfGof b' .Æ
cy] h"u'ln+ pldu' cj:yf cfM pln gfh"s dh" . Gxfkf yDx+ df+efo\ d;o]sfu'ln+ pld;+ cfM yMd:to\t yMu' efo\ :og]kmofRj+u' db' . cfM nf pldu' x] ef;+ wfo]u' vM;f pld;+ yMu' e"ldO ;'r'sftMu' Oltxf; b'g] yMu' df+efo\of pTvgg\ ofgfRj+u' b' .
pld;+ efo\ ;Mlk+ chfclhlklgu' af+nfs ;Ddfgofgf Rj+u' b', pldu' Dx't'+ lkHjMu' x/]s la|6f]gL jfSo pldu' nflu cd[t . plsof x] e/o\ yL yL yf;o\ Nofo\Dx j d:to\u' nflu lrrLw+u' sf];{of Joj:yf ofgfM yM d:to\t cg 5\jofRj+u' b' . yM Jo:ttfof sf/0f+ j pd]/of sf/0f+ Gx"u' rLh ;o]sfsfo] dkmo]w'+s";f+ yMu' eljio Yj clwsf/+ j+rLt dh'Odf w}u' pldu' dg;'jf vM . pld;+ yMu' ef;+ ;k"m Rjo]u' ofgfxn . x/]s ;k"m k;no\ 5u" cnu /\ofs bO la|6f]gL efo\of ;k"mof . yM efo\ Nxfo\ d;M;f+ yMu' efo\of lgu"Ko+u" ;k"m 5]Fo\ dtODx dg"of cg Gxfo\ bOdv' . ln;]+ cgof d]o/ :jod\ x] Yj eflifs cfGbf]ngof ;dy{s h"u'ln+ cg :yfgLo tj/+ h'ofRj+u' Hofem\jMoft jofu' Ujxfln b' . cy] h'ofM nf j l;6Lxno\ xKtfof 5Gx' la|6f]gL efo\of Do] j Kofv+of /+uf/+u Hofem\jM GXofO .
yDx+ O{ :jofM lg0f{o ofo]dkmt ls efUooft bf]if laO, efUoafbL h'O emL . hLjg x] ;+3if{ vM;f knfM knfvo\ ;+3if{ x] ofo] dfn lg . b'Zdg+ xdnf ofMjo]w'+sfM g+ nfsf+ GXofsflaODx RoM lkofRjg ls nvgpof gjfaof y]+HofMu' xlaut h'O . Yj emL;+ dl;pu' vF dv' . g]jfMt j la|6f]gto\u' lgolt ygyfo\ HjMnfM jO .
cGto\ lh+ g]kfMof eflifs ljljwtf, ;+ljwfg+ ljoftMu' eflifs clwsf/ j g]kfMof tgfjgfRj+u' efo\of ln;]+ lhu' df+efo\of cj:yfof af/] aMrfxfso]s sgf . pld;+ lhso\ la6«f]g n'Osn, lh+ plds] g]jfM n'Osf . cfh' 5u" x] h";f gfk+ GXofjgf+ 5' kfO . plk+ j g]jfMt hs dv', Yj tMwLDx Gof+ rLlwDx Gofoft gOu' ljZjo\ yMu' ef;+ gjfo] dv+lk+ oSj oSj b', plk+ 5kF 5wL h'OdfM . yMt yDx+ Wj+nfo] 5tf dlhp, ;fy laOlk+ g+ yg oSj b' .
lh+ pldt Ogfk ofgf — ælhldu' b];o\ lhldu' cj:yf g+ l5slklgu' :jofM oSj dkfM . lhtM l5slkG;+ g]kfno\ Rj+Dx la|6f]g wsfM :jLsf/ ofgflb;F .Æ

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